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Safety in Hungary

Expats moving to Hungary need not be overly concerned about safety, as the country has a relatively low crime rate. Nevertheless, instances of petty crime such as theft, pickpocketing and tourist scams do occur, especially in large cities and tourist hotspots such as Budapest.

General safety in Hungary

Expats in Hungary should take general precautions such as not travelling alone at night in unfamiliar areas and not leaving valuables unattended. Hungarians are friendly people that are generally welcoming of foreigners, but expats should nevertheless keep their wits about them and not be too trusting of strangers.

Scams in Hungary

New arrivals should be wary of scams such as being overcharged by taxis, restaurants and bars. Establishments that are involved in such activities are known to work with some taxi drivers, so expats should treat any recommendations from a cab driver with caution. To avoid complications, expats should make sure that the price of food and drinks is clear before ordering at any restaurant.

Emergency numbers in Hungary

  • Ambulance: 104

  • Fire: 105

  • Police: 107

  • EU emergency help number: 112

Culture Shock in Hungary

With its mix of Hungarian and European cultures, as well as a cosmopolitan feel in the big cities, expats will most likely experience little culture shock in Hungary. The key cultural differences that expats come across tend to be the cuisine and language.

Hungary has a unique culture and history. The population is largely homogenous and mostly made up of native Hungarians. Of the minority groups, Roma and Germans are the largest. Christianity is the predominant religion, but Hungary also has a significant Jewish population – Budapest is home to Europe’s largest synagogue. Hungarians are generally friendly people who enjoy socialising and sharing their country and culture with visitors.

Meeting and greeting in Hungary

Handshakes are a common way of greeting in Hungary. Eye contact is important and should be maintained during handshakes; avoiding eye contact may be interpreted as being evasive or having something to hide. When greeting a woman, male expats should wait for her to initiate the handshake. Meanwhile, close friends may greet one another with a kiss on each cheek.

Language barrier in Hungary

Hungarian, or Magyar, is the official language in Hungary. It is spoken throughout the country and is the language used on signs and notices. Although it may help to memorise a few key phrases, Hungarian is a notoriously difficult language to learn and expats will largely be forgiven for not being able to speak it.

English is also spoken in parts of Hungary, especially in large cities such as Budapest, as well as popular tourist regions such as the Danube Bend and Lake Balaton. English is an essential language for doing business in Hungary and, as such, expats working in Hungary should have no trouble communicating in a business setting.

Relationships and communication in Hungary

The Hungarian communication style is direct, and it’s not unusual for Hungarians to ask very personal questions and share intimate details about themselves. This may be something expats aren't used to, but it is in no way meant to offend, and is rather considered a part of getting to know one another.

Family is the centre of social structures in Hungary. Family members look after one another, and it’s not uncommon for extended families to all stay together. Women and elders are highly respected in Hungary.

Food in Hungary

Hungarian food is quite distinct and has particular tastes. Hungarians are well-known for their hearty meals, the most popular of which is goulash, a thick soup made with meat, vegetables and paprika. Some expats may find the use of paprika (not hot, just spicy) difficult to stomach. Western foods are available in supermarkets and restaurants, especially in Budapest. Nonetheless, most expats will find they take to Hungarian cuisine pretty quickly.

Coffee culture is incredibly popular in Budapest. Hungarians also enjoy drinking alcohol, with beer-drinking being a favourite pastime. Hungarian wines have also gained prominence recently, something that locals are quite proud of.

Folk culture and the arts in Hungary

From Roman ruins to Turkish baths and Gothic churches, Hungary’s architecture is a unique blend of the different nations that have occupied the country over the centuries. Budapest, sitting on either side of the Danube River, is often cited as the most beautiful city in Europe, and there is plenty in terms of arts and cultural activities to keep expats occupied.

Hungarians are immensely proud of their culture, and the country has a rich folk tradition, with dancing, music and decorative arts, such as colourful embroidery and pottery.

Education and Schools in Hungary

Hungary has a rich history of education, with some of its universities dating as far back as the 14th century.

Education in Hungary is generally of an excellent standard, although it frequently adopts a more traditional approach than that of other European countries. This is most evident in the increasing prominence of church-funded public schools, which incorporate religious elements into their curricula.

It is mandatory for children between the ages of five and 16 to attend some form of full-time education. There are several educational options available to expats moving to Hungary with children; however, language barriers may end up being a deciding factor.

The school year in Hungary runs from September to June, with short breaks in autumn and at Easter and a slightly longer break over Christmas. The longest holiday in the school calendar is the summer holiday, which starts in mid-June and continues until the end of August.

Public schools in Hungary

Public schools in Hungary are free and attended by most of the population, although they can be inconsistent in terms of quality, accessibility and facilities. Public schools in Hungary’s rural areas are not usually as well-equipped as those in the country’s urban centres.

The official language of instruction in Hungary is Magyar (Hungarian), which tends to dissuade many expats from enrolling their children in the public education system. Some public schools do offer extra Hungarian language classes for foreigners, but this is at the school’s discretion and little further assistance can be expected.

Expats should note that many public schools in Hungary have looked to the Catholic Church for funding in recent years. This has inevitably altered the teaching approach of many of the schools, which may not be ideal for everyone.

Private schools in Hungary

There are a fair few private schools in Hungary, many of which offer a unique teaching method and curriculum. These schools, which use teaching methods based on the philosophies of the likes of Steiner Waldorf, Carl Rogers and Maria Montessori, are free from government regulation, allowing for more specialised and modern learning approaches. Private schools can be quite expensive, and most are located in and around Budapest.

International schools in Hungary

Expats hoping to provide their children with an international education can look into Hungary’s numerous international schools. All located in and around Budapest, international schools in Hungary are generally of high quality and boast comprehensive facilities. Curriculum options include the International Baccalaureate, as well as the British or American and a range of other curricula.

International schools in Hungary are bound to be the most expensive option for expats, but the cost can be justified by the fact that they teach in English, can provide continuity with children’s previous schooling and will allow for acquaintance with other expat families – for some families, this makes them the ideal choice.

Special-needs education in Hungary

Expat parents of children with special needs can rest easy as Hungarian schools (be they mainstream or specialised schools, depending on the severity of the disability) are well set up to cater for any disabilities or behavioural issues. Children with special needs are assessed by an education rehabilitation committee. The committee can either recommend that the student is placed in a specialised class or institution or propose integration into mainstream education. According to the Act on Equal Opportunities, parents have the right to be involved in any decisions that are made.

Presently in Hungary, children with special needs are integrated into the education system in the following ways: an inclusive mainstream class, a special class in a mainstream school or in a special school. Children with special educational needs may start elementary school at the age of eight at the latest.

Tutoring in Hungary

There are many expat and local parents in Hungary who opt to have their children tutored. Tutoring is helpful in cases where children need assistance in specific subject areas such as maths, science or Hungarian; studying for important entrance exams; or for learners with learning difficulties. An exceptional tutoring company in Hungary is Tutoroo, where parents can browse and find the perfect fit for their children's needs.

Frequently Asked Questions about Hungary

When planning a move to Hungary, expats may have plenty of questions about life in this exciting European destination. Here are answers to some of the most common questions about expat life in Hungary.

Will I need a car?

Hungary has an efficient and comprehensive public transport network that connects all areas of the country. While cars are convenient for travelling outside the larger cities, they are not absolutely necessary. In Budapest, there is a comprehensive public transport system consisting of buses, trains, trams and a metro.

How bad is the weather in winter?

Like most of Europe, Hungary can get quite cold during winter. However, most residents and Hungarians enjoy skiing and a whole range of winter sports during the colder months. There are also a number of spas and resorts with natural hot springs that residents in Hungary can enjoy all year round.

Will I have access to English-language media?

The larger cities in Hungary have a wealth of English-language newspapers and magazines for expats available at news kiosks around the city. Many of the larger hotels also stock well-known weekly and monthly international newspapers, such as the International New York Times, The Guardian International, the Financial Times and the European version of the Wall Street Journal. In Budapest, some of the popular English resources include the weekly Budapest Times, which will keep a person up to date with what’s happening in and around the city. Online, expats can access Hungary Around The Clock and All Hungary Media Group for local news in English.

Will I need to learn to speak Hungarian?

Although it is possible to get by without speaking the language, it's recommended that expats learn at least basic Hungarian. Not only will this make daily life easier, but it's also an important way of bonding with the locals and assimilating into their culture. Also, most of the older generation, especially outside the big cities, speak only Hungarian or German.

Is it expensive to live in Hungary?

Hungary's cost of living is relatively low in comparison with the rest of Europe. Healthcare and public schooling are available at little or no cost. That said, expats should be prepared to spend a significant proportion of their income on accommodation, especially if living in Budapest and other large cities. Food expenses can also start to add up if expats buy imported goods – purchasing food from a local market instead will bring the cost down substantially.

Healthcare in Hungary

The quality of healthcare in Hungary is up to the standards of most Western countries. This, combined with the relatively low cost of medical treatment in the country, has made Hungary a burgeoning medical tourism destination.

Healthcare in Hungary is financed by the Health Insurance Fund (HIF), which allows access to a wide variety of treatments in public hospitals. The HIF is funded by the state as well as by public contributions. 

Public healthcare in Hungary

Although treatment is generally excellent, public healthcare services in Hungary still have their fair share of challenges. Doctors in the public sector are not well paid, and many of the best physicians opt to work in the private sector instead.

This has led to the public sector being understaffed and overburdened, so waiting times for non-essential surgery can be long.

Private healthcare in Hungary

Even though the HIF grants access to subsidised or free medical care and prescription medications, some expats still find that they prefer to have private health insurance and treatment. This allows expats admission to private hospitals with shorter waiting times and usually more English-speaking staff than in public hospitals.

Hungary's combination of affordability and technical prowess in the private sector has led to its rise as a popular medical tourism destination. Dental, cosmetic, eye and joint surgery as well as rehabilitative practices are all popular.

Pharmacies in Hungary

Hungary has a large pharmaceutical industry. As a result, medications are plentiful, and the country has a high concentration of pharmacies. Pharmacies in the public sector provide subsidised prescription medication, so while patients must make a contribution, the fee is generally nominal.

Health insurance in Hungary

Expats who are studying or working in Hungary are covered under the HIF through mandatory contributions. Applying for a health insurance card, known as a Társadalombiztosítási Azonosító Jelet (TAJ) Card, at the local health authority in one’s residential area is relatively simple once a work permit is in order.

All foreigners, including tourists, are automatically covered for first aid and emergency treatment in Hungary.

EU citizens can use their European Health Insurance Card (EHIC) to access state healthcare during a short-term visit. UK citizens can make use of their Global Health Insurance Card (GHIC), which replaced the EHIC for UK citizens post-Brexit. 

The card does not give cardholders access to medical treatment for pre-existing conditions, but it does cover chronic conditions. Travelling to another country for the sole purpose of medical treatment (i.e. medical tourism) is also not covered by the EHIC. Therefore, private health insurance is a necessity for those coming to Hungary for medical tourism purposes.

Emergency services in Hungary

Emergency services are generally adequate in Hungary – they usually arrive on the scene within 15 minutes of receiving a call. There will typically be someone who speaks English on staff at the main emergency call centre to handle calls, otherwise, expats can dial the EU emergency line on 112.

Emergency numbers:

  • Ambulance: 104

  • Police: 107

  • Fire department: 105

  • EU emergency line: 112

Keeping in Touch in Hungary

Though they may be far from home, expats will be pleased to know that keeping in touch in Hungary is easy and convenient. There are many reliable and affordable ways of contacting family and friends, and keeping up to date with local and international news.

Internet in Hungary

In the past, internet in Hungary has been a bit on the pricey side, but major internet service providers such as Magyar Telekom and UPC are having to contend with the low prices offered by newcomers to the industry, leading to an overall price drop.

Many service providers offer useful broadband internet, cable television and landline telephone services bundles. This often works out cheaper than purchasing each service separately.

Mobile phones in Hungary

There are several mobile operators in Hungary, including Telenor, Vodafone and a relative newcomer, DIGIMobil. Mobile reception is usually good in the cities, but is often patchy in rural areas, particularly when it comes to 3G and 4G mobile internet.

Expats can choose between prepaid or postpaid plans. Although postpaid plans usually offer the most attractive packages, expats will need several documents to sign up. Typically, mobile companies require expat customers to present at least a passport, residence permit, address card and bank card.

Postal services in Hungary

The national postal service is Magyar Posta. It is considered reliable but can be painfully slow, and international shipping services are extremely expensive. While at the post office, expats can also pay bills or buy lottery tickets.

Expats have reported with amusement that post offices in Hungary often sell all sorts of interesting things, from fridge magnets and beaded necklaces to keyrings and stuffed animals.

English-language media in Hungary

Expats in search of English-language newspapers can pick up a copy of The Budapest Times once a week to get their fix of local news. Funzine, published once every two weeks, is targeted specifically at expats and is ideal for those wanting to explore Hungary's culture and entertainment scene.

Magyar Televízió (MTV) is run by the state. It airs a few channels and, while expats may be lucky enough to catch the occasional news broadcast in English, all programming is usually in Hungarian. This network is not to be confused with MTV Hungary, the music channel owned by American network, MTV Music Television.

Expats on the hunt for English television should consider purchasing satellite television, which often includes content from familiar channels and networks such as CNN, HBO and BBC.

Cost of Living in Hungary

The cost of living in Hungary is much lower than in other European countries. In fact, the stunning capital, Budapest, was ranked 161st out of 227 cities in the Mercer Cost of Living Survey for 2023, making it far cheaper than the likes of London and Paris, though pricier than Warsaw and Minsk.

Another plus for expats is that they tend to earn higher salaries than their Hungarian counterparts, affording them a better quality of life. However, as with anywhere, certain aspects of life can be expensive, and expats should adjust their budgets accordingly.

Cost of accommodation in Hungary

The primary expense facing expats in Hungary is accommodation. Rental costs can be particularly high for those living in urban areas, such as Budapest.

Naturally, the cost of accommodation in Hungary will largely depend on the property's location, size and condition. That said, it is not unheard of for Budapest residents to spend more than half their monthly salary on the combined cost of rent, mandatory household maintenance fees and utilities. Rental prices vary widely between the city centre and outer districts, and with enough searching, expats will find something that matches their needs and budget.

Cost of groceries in Hungary

After accommodation, the next most considerable expense for most people in Hungary is food, which accounts for approximately a quarter of the average Hungarian's monthly salary. Then again, compared to more expensive European countries, Hungary's grocery prices are a breath of fresh air.

Expats will find a delightful array of grocery shopping options that cater to all budgets. Those longing for a taste of home may find something to satiate their cravings at a Hungarian supermarket, but imported goods can be expensive.

From bustling local markets brimming with fresh produce to well-stocked supermarkets, expats can expect a gastronomic adventure. Abundant seasonal fruits, vegetables, dairy products, and locally sourced meats characterise Hungarian cuisine. To stretch their forint further, expats should consider sticking to home-grown brands and locally sourced ingredients.

Cost of eating out and entertainment in Hungary

Savouring Hungarian culinary delights is typically an experience that's easy on the pocket. Whether expats are craving a piping hot bowl of goulash at a cosy neighbourhood eatery or indulging in fine dining at an elegant restaurant, Hungary has a smorgasbord of options to suit every taste and budget. Remember that tipping is expected in Hungary and should be considered when budgeting for eating out.

Imported wine and beer are pricey, but expats fond of a drink or two will be pleased to know that Hungarian wine and beer are of excellent quality and are much friendlier on the wallet.

For those who relish cultural experiences, Hungary is home to a vibrant arts scene with theatres, concerts and galleries offering a captivating mix of traditional and contemporary works. Though ticket prices vary, there are typically affordable options for every form of entertainment.

Cost of transport in Hungary

Hungary's well-developed public transport system is convenient and highly affordable. A monthly ticket can be purchased for a reasonable price, providing access to unlimited trips on trams, buses, boats and, in Budapest, the metro.

A variety of tickets cater to diverse commuter needs, from single journeys to long-term passes. Additionally, taxis and rideshare services are readily available at competitive rates. For those considering owning a car, expenses such as fuel, insurance and maintenance are generally more reasonable than other European countries.

Cost of education in Hungary

For expats with children, the Hungarian public school system offers free education and the opportunity for youngsters to immerse themselves in the local language and culture. Although small additional expenses, such as school supplies or extracurricular activities, might be incurred, these costs are usually manageable.

On the other hand, expat parents seeking an international education for their children should brace themselves for heftier fees for a world-class education. Various international schools might offer scholarships or financial aid options to help ease the burden.

Cost of healthcare in Hungary

Healthcare should not be too expensive for expats in Hungary, as anyone employed in the country can use its free or highly subsidised healthcare services. The quality of care rivals that of Western European countries, and Hungary's medical tourism industry is a testament to its high standard. To access these services, expats must be employed within the country and meet specific eligibility requirements.

For those seeking private healthcare, it's reassuring to know that the costs remain relatively low in comparison to Western counterparts, making it an attractive option for those seeking top-notch care without the hefty price tag.

Cost of living in Hungary chart

Prices may vary depending on the product and service provider. The list below shows the average prices for Budapest for April 2023.

Accommodation (monthly rent)

Three-bedroom apartment in the city centre

HUF 370,000

Three-bedroom apartment outside the city centre

HUF 260,000

One-bedroom apartment in the city centre

HUF 200,000

One-bedroom apartment outside the city centre

HUF 152,000

Food and drink

Dozen eggs

HUF 1,190

Milk (1 litre)

HUF 500

Rice (1kg)

HUF 760

Loaf of white bread

HUF 530

Chicken breasts (1kg)

HUF 1,990

Pack of cigarettes (Marlboro)

HUF 2,020

Eating out

Three-course meal for two at a mid-range restaurant

HUF 17,100

Big Mac Meal

HUF 2,500

Coca-Cola (330ml)

HUF 460


HUF 730

Bottle of beer (local)

HUF 360


Mobile call rate (per minute – mobile to mobile)

HUF 31

Internet (uncapped ADSL or cable – average per month)

HUF 5,100

Basic utilities (average per month for a standard household)

HUF 63,000


Taxi rate/km

HUF 400

City-centre public transport fare

HUF 350

Gasoline (per litre)

HUF 650

Visas for Hungary

All foreigners require a passport valid for at least three months and issued within the last 10 years to enter Hungary. Hungary is part of the Schengen area, and citizens of EU and EEA states don’t need a visa to enter the country; all they need is either their passport or European identity card.

Citizens of a select number of non-EU countries, including the US, Switzerland, Canada, Australia and Brazil, do not need a visa, but those who do need a visa for Hungary have to apply for a Schengen visa.

Schengen visas for Hungary

To apply for a Schengen visa, expats will need to gather the required documents, complete the visa application form and submit it to the Hungarian consulate or embassy in their home country before they travel. Expats must also ensure they have Hungarian travel insurance. Processing time can vary, so expats should make sure to submit the application well before their departure date.
If applying for a Schengen visa to travel to Hungary for business purposes, it is usually necessary for expats to include a letter of invitation from the Hungarian business party and a letter from their local employer stating their duties in Hungary.
In some cases, applicants may be asked to provide additional documents at the discretion of the Hungarian embassy or consulate. It's common for expats to be asked for proof of employment and residence in their home country as an indicator that they will return home after their trip.
Once granted the Schengen visa, it is still best for expats to bring their documents with them on their trip; in some cases, the border officers may request them.

Residence permits for Hungary

Foreigners intending to stay in the country for longer than 90 days need to secure a residence permit for Hungary. They should apply before entering the country; successful non-EU applicants will be granted a single-entry visa for the purposes of collecting their permit, this visa is typically valid for 30 days. The permit allows expats to apply for address registration and is renewable and valid for a year. Long-term resident status is granted after five years of continuous stay in an EU country for both EU and non-EU nationals alike, this residence permit will be valid for three years and is renewable for another three years. 

For EU/EEA nationals and other nationalities that do not need a visa to enter Hungary, a residence permit can be applied for at the Office of Immigration and Nationality in Hungary after arrival. This should be done within the first 93 days of being in the country. Upon the issuing of a Residence Permit, EU citizens will be given a Registration Card and an Address Card will be posted to them. The Registration Card is only valid if presented with the expat's Address Card and passport.
The documentation required to secure a residence permit is dependent on the purpose of one's stay in Hungary.
Once expats have a valid residence permit and card, they can apply for a tax card and a social security card. To secure employment in Hungary, a valid work permit, in addition to the residence permit, is required.

*Visa requirements can change at short notice and expats should contact their respective embassy or consulate for the latest details.

Moving to Hungary

A landlocked country at the heart of Europe, Hungary is the perfect mix of Eastern and Western European cultures. Blessed with diverse topography, the country boasts beautifully lush hills, sweeping plains and green river valleys. The mighty Danube cuts through Hungary and bisects the famous capital of Budapest, which is often sold as Europe's prettiest city.

Expats moving to Hungary can expect a wonderful expat destination with a stable economy and a government intent on expansion and change, particularly when it comes to adopting European Union guidelines and requirements.

Living in Hungary as an expat

Not only is Hungary one of the world’s most popular tourist destinations, attracting more than 32 million tourists every year, but it is also a popular destination for expats employed in the booming private sector that sprung up after its transition to a market economy in the 1990s.

Some industries in Hungary are attracting plenty of foreign investment, including information technology, luxury vehicle production and renewable energy systems. Smaller areas of foreign investment include the textile and food industries, while high-end tourism is an ever-expanding industry in Hungary.

Hungary has well-developed public transport networks, and its capital, Budapest, has an easy-to-use metro system, including four lines covering most of the city. The Hungarian healthcare system has its ups and downs, but good quality public healthcare is available in major cities and, while participation in the government’s insurance scheme is compulsory, many expats choose to take out private insurance as well.

Cost of living in Hungary

The cost of living in Hungary is fairly reasonable in comparison to other European countries. Accommodation and the related costs in large cities such as Budapest will set expats back quite significantly, but new arrivals can mitigate this by living a little further out of the city centre.

Thanks to Hungary's excellent and affordable public transport links, owning a car in the country is unnecessary, although a vehicle is convenient for exploring the rest of Europe. Expats can further bring down their monthly bills by buying local produce and staples. Eating out will also be something expats can enjoy occasionally, as Hungary boasts many restaurants catering for a range of markets.

Families and children in Hungary

Family is an integral part of Hungary's society and as one of the safest countries in the world, expats will find Hungary an ideal place to raise children.

Education in Hungary is generally considered to be high quality. The official language of instruction at public schools, which are free to attend, is Hungarian (Magyar) which may present a language barrier for expat children. Fortunately, there are several international schools in Budapest that offer English-language education and private schools which teach using various alternative pedagogical philosophies.

Hungary also offers plenty of natural landscapes, historical sites and green spaces for expats moving to Hungary with children to explore during their leisure time.

Climate in Hungary

Hungary has a continental climate, with warm summers and chilly winters. While many expats may find the colder months of the year quite trying, the warmth of the Hungarian people definitely makes up for it.

Hungary is home to some of Europe’s friendliest people, and the country offers both abundant economic opportunities and a relaxed pace of life that appeals to expats seeking a balanced life abroad.

Fast facts

Population: Almost 9.7 million

Capital city: Budapest (also the largest city)

Neighbouring countries: Hungary is bordered by Slovakia to the north, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, and Croatia and Slovenia to the southwest.

Geography: Hungary is a land-locked country. The Danube and Tisza rivers are the major defining features of the country's geography, splitting it into three sections. The first of these is Dunántúl, which has a hilly terrain with some small mountains. The other two areas, Duna-Tisza köze and Tiszántúl, are characterised by the Great Hungarian Plain.

Political system: Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic

Major religion: Roman Catholicism

Main languages: Hungarian, also known as Magyar, is the official language in Hungary, with Romanian and German being co-official minority languages. English is also spoken by a small percentage of the country, and business dealings are commonly done in English.

Money: The Hungarian Forint (HUF) is divided into 100 fillérs. Fillérs, however, are now out of circulation. There are plans to replace the forint with the euro in the future. To open a bank account, expats will most likely need to present a residence permit and address card, though some banks may allow accounts to be opened with a passport only. ATMs are easily accessible.

Tipping: Tipping is customary in Hungary. 10 to 15 percent is usually appropriate.

Time: GMT +1 (GMT +2 from late March to late October).

Electricity: 230 volts, 50 Hz. European style two-pin plugs are standard.

Internet domain: .hu

International dialling code: +36

Emergency numbers: 112 (general emergencies), 104 (ambulance), 105 (fire), 107 (police)

Transport and driving: Cars drive on the right-hand side in Hungary. There is a well-developed public transport system, including a metro system in Budapest. Most parts of the country are easily accessible by car or public transport.

Doing Business in Hungary

Hungary occupies a strategic location at the heart of Europe. With an open and export-driven economy, the country is an attractive destination for international business. Expats doing business in Hungary will find themselves among a highly skilled and educated workforce, as well as a largely Western business culture.

As with most countries in the former Eastern Bloc, Hungary moved from a socialist economy to a market economy in the early 1990s, and it's been a member of the EU since 2004.

Hungary’s main industries include mining, construction materials, electronics, pharmaceuticals, textiles and motor vehicles. The capital, Budapest, is the commercial centre of Hungary, and many multinational companies have offices in the city, including IBM, Pfizer, Ericsson and Microsoft. The city is also a central hub of innovation and research as home to the headquarters of the European Institute of Innovation and Technology.

Fast facts

Business hours

Business hours are usually between 9am and 5pm, Monday to Friday. It is not unusual for Hungarians to work overtime and not take a lunch break. Most Hungarians take holidays during the summer months of July and August, so it’s best to avoid scheduling important meetings during these months.

Business language

Hungarian is the official language. Although much of the younger generation has a good command of English, and it is becoming increasingly popular in business circles, the older generation primarily speaks Hungarian or German.


Hungarians take pride in their appearance, and it’s essential to dress appropriately. Formal business attire is the norm; men should wear a dark-coloured suit and tie, whereas a classic business suit is acceptable for women.


Gift-giving is not necessary in Hungarian business circles; however, if invited to a Hungarian associate’s house for a meal, then a small gift of chocolates or flowers is appropriate, but roses and lilies should be avoided. Gifts are generally opened immediately.

Gender equality

While there are equal opportunities for women, the majority of senior management positions are still occupied by men.


A firm handshake with direct eye contact is an acceptable greeting between Hungarian business associates. If greeting a woman, wait for her to extend her hand first. Otherwise, a nod of the head is acceptable. Hungarians address each other by their surnames first and then their first names, e.g. John Smith would be Smith John.

Business culture in Hungary

Hungary’s communist legacy means that bureaucracy is still rife in business dealings. That said, Western influences have become more prominent in business culture in Hungary in recent years, and expats should not struggle too much to get accustomed to how things are done in this Central European country.


Hungary is a largely homogenous nation, with a little under 98 percent of the population being Hungarian. The official language is Hungarian, or Magyar as it is known locally, although English and German are also both widely spoken. English is becoming increasingly popular in business circles and is now the unofficial language of business in Hungary. Although expats would do well to learn a few key phrases in Hungarian, it is a notoriously difficult language to learn.


Hungarians are generally friendly and generous hosts, and socialising is an important part of business relationships; face-to-face meetings are key. In line with this, Hungarians prefer direct communication, so vague and ambiguous language should be avoided. Meetings frequently start with small talk, as Hungarians prefer to get to know their business partners. Business relationships are vital and a lot of time is taken to build a solid foundation.


Business structures in Hungary are hierarchical and status is highly valued. Decisions are made from the top down, and senior managers don't consult their subordinates before making a decision. Decision-making can be a slow process, as Hungarians prefer to consider all aspects of a deal before taking any concrete action. Punctuality is essential, and cancelling meetings at the last minute is decidedly detrimental to any further business dealings with the company in question. 

Dos and don’ts of doing business in Hungary

  • Do expect to socialise with Hungarian business associates. Hungarians enjoy getting to know business partners in a social setting before any business decisions are made in the boardroom.

  • Do address Hungarian business associates by their full titles.

  • Don't be late for meetings and avoid cancelling at the last minute.

  • Do show respect to senior managers and older associates, as hierarchy and status are key in Hungarian business circles.

  • Don't rush meetings and business negotiations. Hungarians prefer taking time to consider all aspects of a business deal before making an informed decision.

Weather in Hungary

The weather in Hungary is characterised by four distinct seasons: beautiful, warm summers; bitterly cold winters; and mild spring and autumn seasons.

Summers are quite warm and sometimes uncomfortable, but there are lots of ways to beat the heat. Temperatures can reach 28°C (82°F) or higher, with the occasional evening thunderstorm. Hungary is landlocked and far from the ocean, but there are many beautiful public baths and open-air swimming pools, providing an ideal way to cool down. Lake Balaton and Mátra Hills are popular places to spend time in the summer for locals and visitors alike.

In summer, lightweight and breathable clothing is recommended, although a light jumper or cover-up might be necessary for the evenings.

Winters are often freezing, but thankfully short, particularly in Budapest. Winter lows usually hover between 0°C and -15°C (32°F and 5°F), but can easily drop lower, especially when the north-easterly wind known as the Bora sweeps through the country. The coldest months of the year are December and January.

Snowfall is common in winter and those who love the outdoors will enjoy the opportunity to ski, snowboard, sledge, or just play around in the snow. That said, expats should take care as even light snow can whip up into a vicious snowstorm, especially in the high-altitude, mountainous parts of the country.

In winter, expats should wrap up warmly with layers and thick coats, particularly if the weather is rainy or snowy.

The pleasantly mild weather in spring and autumn makes these seasons popular with visitors, and they are widely considered the best times of year in Hungary. There can, however, still be bouts of relatively chilly weather in either spring or autumn.


Transport and Driving in Hungary

The public transport system in Hungary is comprehensive, and expats will find it relatively easy and affordable to get around in the country. Most cities have far-reaching bus and tram systems, and Budapest also has a metro system. Alternatively, cycling is a popular means of getting around most cities, while taxis and select ride-sharing services allow expats even greater freedom of movement.

Public transport in Hungary

Hungary has an extensive public transport system that is both efficient and affordable. Monthly passes covering all modes of transport are available for frequent commuters, which can be bought at all main transport hubs. Discounted rates are available for students and pensioners.


Budapest is the central hub for Hungary’s train network. All rail lines fan out from the city’s three railway stations, Keleti, Deli and Nyugati. Major cities in Hungary and other European cities are linked to Budapest by intercity and express train lines.


Budapest’s city centre has a metro system with four lines in operation. This includes the historically significant Line 1, mainland Europe's oldest underground railway.


Hungary has a developed and comprehensive bus network spanning the entire country. Some bus routes reach further than the railway lines, making bus transport a viable means of getting around Hungary. The bus network consists of both inner-city and intercity routes, including routes to other European cities. City-to-city tickets can be bought directly from the driver.


Several Hungarian cities have tram and trolley-bus lines, including Budapest, Debrecen, Szeged and Miskolc. Budapest is home to route 4/6, the busiest tram line in the world, with trams arriving at 60- to 90-second intervals during peak time.

Taxis in Hungary

Taxis offer a fast and reasonably cheap way of getting around Hungarian cities and towns. There are numerous operators, and fares vary depending on the company and time of day. Expats should note that Hungarian taxi drivers are notorious for trying to overcharge foreigners, so it’s important to ensure that the meter is turned on and running correctly. Otherwise, it's best to agree on the fare before embarking on a journey.

Ride-share apps

Local legislation and an established public transport network have limited the expansion of ride-share services in Hungary. However, app-based transport services such as Fotaxi, City Taxi and Bolt (Taxify) flourish in Budapest. Ride-sharing services are often preferred to taxi services, as they give expats more control over routes and service prices.

Driving in Hungary

Hungarian highways and urban roads are generally in excellent condition and, thanks to the country’s compact size, most domestic destinations can be reached within two to three hours. Be that as it may, driving in Hungary can be a stressful experience because of the erratic nature of Hungarian drivers, who often ignore the rules of the road. Traffic is heavy in Budapest and other cities, and parking can be a problem. With the country’s extensive public transport system and urban transport links, it may be unnecessary for expats living in Hungary to own a car.

EU citizens can drive in Hungary with their national driving licence. Non-EU nationals can drive in Hungary for a year with an international driving licence and their national driving licence, after which they will need to apply for a Hungarian licence.

Cars in Hungary drive on the right-hand side of the road. The country has a zero-tolerance policy regarding drinking and driving, and the traffic police frequently set up road blocks and checks.

Tolled motorways connect cities and towns. Expats driving in Hungary need to have an e-vignette to use motorways. These can be purchased online and are valid immediately. Such e-vignettes are available for four-day, one-week, one-month or one-year periods.

Cycling in Hungary

Cycling is a popular pastime and mode of transport in Hungary, with the country's high volume of daily cyclists comparable to that of global cycling capitals such as Amsterdam and Denmark. There are plenty of dedicated cycle paths as well as a widespread bicycle rental scheme, both of which make cycling an easy and convenient way to get around.

Walking in Hungary

Most parts of Hungary are relatively flat, making it highly pedestrianised, but expats should take proper precautions when it comes to staying safe. Opportunistic crime does happen, so pedestrians should be sure to stick to areas that are known to them and keep valuables well out of sight. Drivers in Hungary often behave erratically, so extra caution should be taken when walking near traffic.

Embassy Contacts for Hungary

Hungarian Embassies

  • Hungarian Embassy, Washington, DC, United States: +1 202 362 6730

  • Hungarian Embassy, London, United Kingdom: +44 20 7201 3440

  • Hungarian Embassy, Ottawa, Canada: +1 613 230 2717

  • Hungarian Embassy, Canberra, Australia: +61 2 6282 3226

  • Hungarian Embassy, Pretoria, South Africa: +27 12 430 3030

  • Hungarian Embassy, Dublin, Ireland: +353 1 661 2902

  • Hungarian Consulate-General, Wellington, New Zealand: +64 4 260 3175

Foreign Embassies in Hungary

  • United States Embassy, Budapest: +36 1 475 4400

  • British Embassy, Budapest: +36 1 266 2888

  • Canadian Embassy, Budapest: +36 1 392 3360

  • Australian Embassy, Vienna: +43 1 506 740

  • South African Embassy, Budapest: +36 1 392 0999

  • Irish Embassy, Budapest: +36 1 301 4960

  • New Zealand Embassy, Germany: +49 30 206 210

Relocation companies in Hungary

Relocation companies are a one-stop solution to the moving needs of individuals, families and companies. When moving to Hungary, expats may find the amount of bureaucracy and administrative hoops they have to jump through rather intimidating. Relocation businesses offer a full suite of services, from visas, pre-departure briefing and removals to neighbourhood orientation, home-finding services and school selection.

Below are two international firms that we recommend expats make use of to help ease the move to Hungary. 

International relocation companies



With offices in Hungary and 37 other countries, Sanelo specialises in providing customised end-to-end moving and relocation services. They offer five-star protection and coverage, first-rate packing, and expert guidance, all through a single point of contact. Sanelo is there to make things easier every step of the way. Contact them for more information on moving to Hungary.


santa fe

Santa Fe Relocation

Santa Fe Relocation has more than 50 years experience providing comprehensive relocation services to both corporate and individual clients relocating to Hungary. As an international firm, Santa Fe Relocation has a strong understanding of what is required in a move, and caters for a full spectrum of needs.


Public Holidays in Hungary




New Year's Day

1 January

1 January

Memorial Day of the 1848 Uprising

15 March

15 March

Good Friday

7 April

29 March

Easter Sunday

9 April

31 March

Easter Monday

10 April

1 April

Labour Day

1 May

1 May

Whit Monday

6 June

20 May

State Foundation Day

20 August

20 August

Republic Day 

23 October

23 October

All Saints' Day

1 November

1 November

Christmas Day

25 December

25 December

Second Day of Christmas

26 December

26 December

Diversity and inclusion in Hungary

Prospective expats headed to Hungary often wonder what to expect of day-to-day societal norms. Read on to learn more about diversity and inclusion in Hungary.

Accessibility in Hungary

Although there have been huge improvements in recent years, Hungary is not the most accessible country for disabled people, but the locals are friendly and helpful towards those who need help. Few pavements have ramps or slopes for wheelchair users, and many shops and restaurants have barriers that make access difficult.

BKK operates the bus, tram and trolleybus network in Budapest, and they acknowledge that there is still a long way to go in the accessibility of Budapest’s transport network. Improvements are being made and 90 percent of the buses are now low-floor vehicles. At night and on weekends, only low-floor buses are in operation in Budapest. Low-floor vehicles are in service along almost a third of the tramlines in Budapest and the vehicles have dedicated spots where wheelchairs and prams can be also fixed. Improvements are being made to the metro system. All the stations along metro line M4 are step-free, and a few of the stations along M2 and M3.

Lowered curbs have been introduced at all new and refurbished pedestrian crossings in the city, and BKK is starting to introduce tactile paving and audible traffic lamps at intersections assist blind and visually impaired people.

There are laws in Hungary that protect the rights and opportunities of people with disabilities. All employers with a workforce of more than 20 workers, in both the private and public sectors, must hire five percent of people with reduced working capacity.

Further reading – BKK’s downloadable journey planner application displays accessible routes.

LGBTQ+ in Hungary

Homosexuality is legal in Hungary, and discrimination on the basis of sex and sexual orientation is illegal. Although same-sex marriage is prohibited by the constitution, Hungary recognises “registered partnerships”, which offer same-sex couples most of the rights and benefits of married couples. Unregistered cohabitation for same-sex couples is also recognised and puts same-sex couples on an equal footing to unmarried heterosexual couples.

Progress on gay rights has stalled recently, however, and the Hungarian government led by Viktor Orbán passed legislation in 2021 that ended the legal recognition of transgender Hungarians.

Hungary is one of the most socially conservative countries in Europe, but attitudes to LGBTQ+ people are changing. 39 percent of Hungarians now supported same-sex marriage, compared to 18 percent in 2006. A poll taken in 2016 found that 64 percent of Hungarians agreed that gay, lesbian and bisexual people should enjoy the same rights as straight people.

Gender equality in Hungary

Hungary is a conservative country with traditional values, but stereotypes and gender roles in society are slowly changing. Under communism, women gained greater access to secondary and university education, and family dynamics have continued to become more progressive since Hungary joined the EU in 2004.

There remains some gender inequality in the workplace and women experience higher levels of job insecurity and discrimination. Hungary ranks well below its European peers in the EIGE Gender Equality Index and it has pledged to invest in gender equality to further improve the economic status of women.

Katalin Novák, the first female President of Hungary, has declared that she wants women to have better opportunities and to not have to choose between motherhood and a career. The government aims to increase women’s employment and create more flexible day care facilities to help women return to the workplace.

The average pay gap between men and women is 18 percent. Some Hungarian women seek roles with international corporations, where there is often a stronger focus on pay equality.

Foreign businesswomen are likely to be treated with respect but should be prepared to expect traditional attitudes from their male counterparts, as Hungarian men tend to be chivalrous and somewhat protective toward women.

Further reading – European Institute for Gender Equality

Women in leadership in Hungary

Only one-third of senior executives in EU member states are women, but in Hungary, the proportion is much higher, with 42 percent of managerial positions being occupied by women, according to a survey published by the European Union’s statistical office, Eurostat.

Despite how having a female president, women remain woefully underrepresented in parliament. Following the 2022 elections, female MPs held just 13.6 percent of the 199 seats.

Mental health awareness in Hungary

Expats can be at greater risk of mental health issues, especially depression and anxiety, which can be exacerbated by loneliness and the stress of living in new surroundings. International companies are becoming more aware of mental health issues, and many have adjusted their policies to provide better support. This includes ensuring that mental illness is well covered by the company’s chosen employee healthcare schemes, as well as promoting knowledge and decreasing stigma by holding in-house workshops.

There is a low understanding of mental illness in Hungary, and the social acceptance of people living with mental disorders is well below that of other European states. The effectiveness of social services and the quality of the social care system have improved during the past decade in Hungary, but the sector is still underfunded.

Most expats choose to visit a private doctor or therapist. There are some well-respected clinics in Budapest with English-speaking staff. A good health insurance company should be able to recommend suitable professionals.

Unconscious bias training in Hungary

Unconscious bias is an implicit set of often stereotyped ideas an individual carries about groups of people different to themselves. These ideas are not purposefully adopted but rather develop subtly over time, and people tend to hold unconscious biases about groups they never or rarely come into contact with. In Hungary, for example, some local employers will prefer men for certain roles.

Unconscious bias can profoundly affect both personal and work conditions. In the workplace, unchecked bias undermines vital aspects of the company, with negative effects on employee performance, retention and recruitment. In a bid to create a better work environment, many companies are beginning to institute unconscious bias training. There are also a number of online resources that can be used to improve self-awareness regarding bias.

Useful resources

Diversification of the workforce in Hungary

There is a thriving and diverse expat community in Hungary with people from countries all over the world, but particularly from Germany, Austria, and other nearby European states. Expats often stick together, but many make good local friends too. The offices of international companies based in Budapest buzz with foreign languages, including English, German, Russian or French.

The local population is not diverse, with very few non-EU foreigners living in Hungary. Black people are something of a curiosity, and may attract interest but are unlikely to be met with any racism.

Further reading

Expat Arrivals: Interview with Starr, an American expat living in Hungary
Fodors: "I'm a black American in Budapest. Here's why I feel safer here than home"

Safety in Hungary

People arriving in Hungary have no need to be concerned about safety. The country has an extremely low crime rate, and little violent crime, and although there have been reports of pickpocketing and theft at tourist hotspots in Budapest, most Hungarians are honest and welcoming to foreigners. Women should be vigilant when going home late at night but are unlikely to experience any problems. The public transport system is reliable and safe.

Calendar initiatives in Hungary

4 February – World Cancer Day
28 February – Rare Disease Day
March – TB Awareness Month
17 May – International Day Against Homophobia
19 May – Global Accessibility Awareness Day
10 September – World Suicide Prevention Day
October – Breast Cancer Awareness Month
10 October –World Mental Health Day
14 November – World Diabetes Day
1 December – World AIDS Day

Accommodation in Hungary

Finding a new home can be one of the most stressful parts of relocating to a new country. Most expats moving to Hungary choose to live in the capital, Budapest.

Although accommodation in Hungary is typically much cheaper than in the rest of Europe, rental prices vary considerably throughout the country and even within cities, so it's worth spending time looking for a great deal.

Types of accommodation in Hungary

Apartments are the norm in Hungary's inner cities, while freestanding houses are more likely to be found in the suburbs or outlying rural areas.

Both furnished and unfurnished accommodation is available. Expats who intend to stay in the country permanently usually prefer to rent unfurnished accommodation, allowing them to style their homes in line with their preferences. Meanwhile, expats staying for a shorter term or an uncertain amount of time often find that the convenience of furnished accommodation suits them better.

Finding accommodation in Hungary

Owing to the language barrier, it is often preferable to employ the services of a letting agent; however, expats should note that the fee charged by the agent will be the equivalent of at least one month's rent, possibly up to three.

If an expat's budget doesn't quite stretch to this, rental listings are also available online and in local Hungarian newspapers.

Renting property in Hungary

Expats looking to rent accommodation in Hungary will enjoy a good quality-to-price ratio. The market isn't overly competitive, so expats shouldn't struggle too much to find a suitable home.


Some landlords are happy to forgo a written contract in favour of a verbal agreement with the tenant. While this might be more convenient and expedient than a written contract, verbal agreements do not offer the same degree of security and can be susceptible to sudden changes by the landlord. Once a lease agreement has been drawn up, expats should make sure to go over their contract in detail before signing or moving in to ensure that they understand the terms and conditions of the rental agreement.


Tenants will have to put down a security deposit before moving in. The required deposit is set and agreed upon by both parties, but usually amounts to between one and three months' rent.


The rent paid to the landlord does not include monthly fees for utilities and, in the case of apartment rentals, monthly levies. These are typically reserved for the tenant's expense.

A Brief History of Hungary

Early History

  • 9th century: Hungary has a rich history dating back to when the Magyar tribes migrated and settled in the Carpathian Basin.
  • 1000: Hungary became a Christian kingdom under the rule of King Stephen I.

Ottoman Empire

  • 1526: The Ottoman Empire conquers Hungary, and the country becomes a province of the empire for the next 150 years.
  • 1541: The Ottoman Empire partitions Hungary into three parts.
  • 1566–1686: Hungary experiences a period of relative stability and prosperity under Ottoman rule, with a flourishing of Ottoman culture and architecture.
  • 1683: The Ottoman Empire's siege of Vienna fails, marking the beginning of the empire's decline in Europe.
  • 1699: Treaty of Karlowitz marks the end of Ottoman rule in Hungary and sees the country transferred to Habsburg control.
  • 1711–1716: Hungary experiences a period of Ottoman reoccupation during the Austro-Turkish War, with the Ottomans increasing their control over the next two decades.
  • 1739–1791: The Ottoman Empire loses more control of Hungary, with the Habsburgs gradually re-establishing control over the country.
  • 1791: The Ottoman Empire officially cedes control of Hungary to the Habsburgs, ending more than 150 years of Ottoman rule in the country.
  • 1867: After the Ottoman Empire's defeat in the Austro-Turkish War, Hungary becomes part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, one of Europe's major powers. The Austro-Hungarian Compromise establishes the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary, with Hungary gaining significant autonomy within the empire.

The Golden Age

  • 1872: Hungary's first parliamentary elections are held, leading to the establishment of a liberal constitutional monarchy.
  • 1867–1914: This period of relative stability and prosperity is known as Hungary's "Golden Age", characterised by rapid industrialisation, urbanisation and cultural flourishing.
  • 1908: Austria-Hungary occupies and annexes Bosnia and Herzegovina, increasing tensions with neighbouring Serbia and Russia.
  • 1879: Austria-Hungary signs a Dual Alliance with Germany, solidifying its position as one of the great powers of Europe.
  • 1894–1895: Tensions between Hungary and the other ethnic groups within the Austro-Hungarian Empire, including the Czechs and Slovaks, come to a head, leading to a series of political crises.
  • 1882: Austria-Hungary signs a defensive alliance with Italy, further consolidating its position as a great power.
  • 1900–1914: Hungary continues to experience political and economic stability, with a growing national identity and pride. The country becomes increasingly influential within the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and its army and economy continue to grow.

1900 - 1945

  • 1914–1918: Hungary participates in World War I as part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The country experiences significant losses and economic disruption during the war, and the empire eventually collapses.
  • 1918: Hungary declares independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and a democratic republic is established.
  • 1919–1920: Hungary becomes a communist state under the rule of Bela Kun, who goes on to wage war against Romania and Czechoslovakia. Romanian troops eventually occupy Budapest and hand power to Admiral Miklós Horthy.
  • 1920: The Treaty of Trianon sees more than two-thirds of Hungarian territory given to Romania and Czechoslovakia, displacing a third of native Hungarian speakers. 
  • 1938: Hungary begins to align itself with Nazi Germany, and the country's anti-Semitic laws begin to be enforced.
  • 1940–1941: Hungary occupies and annexes parts of Czechoslovakia, Romania and Yugoslavia, expanding its territory once again and increasing its influence in the region.
  • 1941: Hungary enters World War II on the side of the Axis powers. The country experiences significant losses and economic disruption during the war, with its soldiers fighting on the Eastern Front and in North Africa.
  • 1942–1944: Hungary's Jewish population, estimated at around 800,000, is subjected to increasing persecution and violence, including deportations to concentration camps and forced labour.
  • 1944: Soviet forces begin their advance into Hungary, and the country becomes a major battlefield of the war.
  • March 1944: German forces occupy Hungary and install a puppet government, increasing violence against Hungary's Jewish population.
  • October 1944: Soviet forces enter Hungary and defeat the German army, leading to the establishment of a communist government in Hungary.
  • 1944–1945: Hungary experiences significant losses and economic disruption during the war, with many of its cities and towns being heavily damaged or destroyed.
  • 1945: Hungary becomes a satellite state of the Soviet Union and begins to implement communist economic and political reforms. The country's Jewish population, which had suffered greatly during the war, begins to rebuild and recover.

Soviet rule

  • 1945 to 1949: Under communist rule, Hungary experiences a period of industrialisation and modernisation but also suppression of political dissent.
  • 1956: The Hungarian Revolution breaks out, a nationwide uprising against Soviet rule. Khrushchev orders the Red Army to forcefully suppress the uprising and abolish the independent national government. Hungary is immediately subjected to merciless repression; thousands of Hungarians die, and hundreds of thousands more flee to the West.
  • 1968: Economic and political reforms begin, focusing on decentralisation and market liberalisation.
  • 1989: The communist government is abolished, and Hungary begins transitioning to a multi-party democracy. 


  • 1990: Hungary holds the first free elections since World War II. The conservative government is replaced by a coalition government led by the liberal Hungarian Democratic Forum.
  • 1991: Soviet forces leave Hungary, and The Warsaw Pact is dissolved. 
  • 1999: Hungary joins NATO following a referendum in 1997. 
  • 2004: Hungary joins the European Union.
  • 2006: A socialist-led coalition government takes power and implements social and economic reforms to reduce income inequality and increase economic growth.
  • 2006: Protests break out in Budapest after Prime Minister Gyurcsany admits his party lied during the election campaign. 
  • 2008: Hungary is one of the countries hit hardest by the global financial crisis, leading to economic hardship for its citizens.
  • 2010: A right-wing government elected led by Viktor Orbán focuses on reducing the budget deficit and implementing business-friendly reforms.
  • 2011: Hungary amends media laws to align with EU press freedom regulations. The country also approves a new and controversial constitution without the checks and balances necessary for a modern democracy. 
  • 2014: Orbán's government is re-elected and continues its focus on fiscal discipline and economic reforms.
  • 2017: The EU threatens to suspend Hungary from the EU due to the country's attempt to close down the liberal Central European University. 
  • 2018: A liberal-right coalition government takes power, promising to address income inequality and improve social services.
  • 2020: Hungary enacts emergency measures in response to the Covid-19 pandemic, including widespread lockdowns and restrictions on public gatherings.
  • 2021: Hungary's Prime Minister Viktor Orbán is re-elected for a fourth consecutive term; his government continues to face criticism for its handling of the pandemic and its increasingly authoritarian policies.

Working in Hungary

The Hungarian economy has opened substantially since the country joined the European Union in 2004. Hungary transitioned from a socialist economy to a market economy in the early 1990s. This meant that many smaller companies were privatised while larger foreign-owned companies opened offices in Hungary, thus promoting more opportunities for expats seeking work in Hungary. This still rings true today.

Job market in Hungary

Although Hungary's unemployment rate has gone up in recent years, it reached its lowest level in years in July 2022. Despite the global economic conditions, Hungary's economy remains fairly stable and commercial opportunities abound.

As the largest electronics producer in Central and Eastern Europe, Hungary has plenty to offer for expats in electronics manufacturing and research in particular. Other strong sectors in the country's economy include mining, technology, telecommunications and IT. There are also opportunities for young and inexperienced expats as English teachers.

Finding a job in Hungary

Expats looking for a job in Hungary will need to be thorough in their search and use as many methods of job hunting as possible.

The internet is always a good start, and job portals and social networks such as LinkedIn are particularly helpful. That said, jobseekers should be wary of accepting a job offer before meeting their new employer in person. 

For expats already in Hungary, it might be fruitful to peruse the job sections of local newspapers. Though, to understand these, expats will either need to know Hungarian or have someone to translate for them.

Expats may sometimes find that Hungarian companies are reluctant to employ foreigners. This is mainly because of the amount of red tape involved. In this respect, expats from EU countries will have a better chance of finding a job in Hungary because EU citizenship automatically grants them the right to work.

If unable to find a Hungarian employer, expats may be able to find a job with multinational corporations based in their home country and request to be transferred to Hungary instead.

Work culture in Hungary

Expats working in Hungary will find that their work environment is quite traditional, especially if working for a local company. Multinational companies, on the other hand, offer environments similar to those in the USA and Western Europe. The work week is generally 40 hours, and annual leave typically amounts to 21 days.

Basic knowledge of Hungarian is helpful when negotiating salaries and can put job applicants a step above the rest when applying for jobs in Hungary. Expats working for multinational companies can expect to earn more than their Hungarian counterparts.

Work Permits for Hungary

Nationals of countries that are members of the European Economic Area (EEA) may work in other member states, like Hungary, with only a passport – so no visa or work permit is necessary. European Union (EU) member state nationals have the same privilege.

Unfortunately, expats from countries who are not a member of these organisations are not as lucky and will have to deal with the paperwork required to secure a work permit in Hungary.

Applying for a work permit in Hungary

The work permit application is submitted in cooperation with the employer, who must obtain permission from the labour office to hire a foreigner. Permission is granted in the form of a labour agreement should the employer be able to prove that a suitable candidate could not be found within the EU and EEA areas or Hungary.

The work permit application hinges on the labour agreement as well as a signed employment contract. Therefore, it is not possible to apply for a work permit in advance and then look for a job at a later stage. It should also be noted that if expats wish to work for a different employer, they will need to apply for a new work permit.

The Hungarian work permit is usually issued within 30 to 60 days of the submission of the application, but can take longer if the volume of applications is unusually high. The period of validity, which is three years, begins when the visa is issued.

* Visa requirements can change at short notice and expats should contact their respective embassy or consulate for the latest details.

Banking, Money and Taxes in Hungary

Expats should not experience much difficulty managing their banking and taxes in Hungary, as the country offers all the financial amenities expected of a modern European state.

Money in Hungary

The official currency of Hungary is still the Hungarian Forint (HUF) rather than the Euro, even though Hungary has been a member of the EU since 2004. An official date for changing over to the Euro has yet to be set.

Historically, the forint was divided into 100 fillérs, but fillérs are not in circulation anymore; today they are merely used as a quantity in accounting.

  • Coins: 5 HUF, 10 HUF, 20 HUF, 50 HUF, 100 HUF and 200 HUF.

  • Notes: 500 HUF, 1,000 HUF, 2,000 HUF, 5,000 HUF, 10,000 HUF and 20,000 HUF.

Banking in Hungary

Banking in Hungary is relatively simple and up to the standards that expats from other Western countries have become accustomed to. There are dozens of banks operating in Hungary, among them many foreign-owned banks.

Banking hours in Hungary are from 9am to 5pm from Monday to Thursday, and on Fridays banks tend to close early, usually at 3pm or 4pm. Most banks are closed on Saturdays and Sundays.

Opening a bank account

When opening a bank account, expats will be asked whether they would like to open a Forint, Euro or US Dollar account; each account has its pros and cons and varying fee structures. Minimum deposit requirements are usually the equivalent of USD 100.

Expats opening a bank account in Hungary will need to bring their passports. An address card is also sometimes required and a letter from an employing company with proof of income is also helpful, but not essential.

Internet banking is usually included with most bank accounts.

Credit cards and ATMs

ATMs are widely available in Hungary, and debit and credit cards can be used in most large supermarkets and chain stores.

Expats wishing to have a debit card will need to make an initial deposit. While credit cards are available, it is notoriously difficult for an expat to obtain one from a Hungarian bank. For this reason, expats generally use credit cards from their home country or an international bank, rather than ones from Hungarian banks.

Taxes in Hungary

Expats working in Hungary whose only income is their salary are not required to file tax returns, as tax is deducted by their company on a monthly basis.

Foreign residents employed in Hungary are only required to pay tax on their income earned within Hungary. If expats stay in Hungary for more than 183 days of the year, they will be classified as permanent residents of the country and required to pay tax on their income earned in both Hungary and abroad.

Hungary has a flat income tax rate of 15 percent. Expats working in Hungary should note that the country has double taxation agreements with a number of countries so that they don't pay tax in two countries. Expats are advised to check this with the tax office in their home country.