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Regardless of whether foreigners are travelling to the US on holiday or making a more permanent move to take up a new job, it is important to be aware of the different types of visas available for the US. Here are the main visa categories that expats are likely to make use of.
Visitor visas for the USA
Nationals of certain countries may be in the US for up to 90 days without a visa. Those not eligible for the visa waiver programme will require a visitor visa. This visa is designed for temporary stays by international visitors and allows entry for those wishing to come to the US to do business (a B-1 visa), those visiting as tourists (a B-2 visa), or a combination of both (B-1/B-2 visa).
All applicants must show evidence of funds to cover their expenses, evidence of economic and social ties abroad and evidence that they are permanently living outside of the US.
Temporary work visas for the USA
There are several visa categories available for those wanting to work in the US, with each category being specific to a particular kind of work. Most expats will apply for either the H-1B or the L visa. The H-1B visa is for people taking up positions in speciality occupations – in other words, workers with specific skills and knowledge who have completed higher education. The L visa is for employees of international companies who have been transferred to a branch in the US.
Permanent residence in the USA
To stay permanently in the US, expats will need to acquire a Permanent Resident Card, otherwise known as a Green Card. Expats moving to the US permanently for work or investment purposes will fall in one of the following tiers:
- Employment First Preference (E1): Priority Workers
- Employment Second Preference (E2): Professionals Holding Advanced Degrees and Persons of Exceptional Ability
- Employment Third Preference (E3): Skilled Workers, Professionals, and Unskilled Workers (Other Workers)
- Employment Fourth Preference (E4): Certain Special Immigrants
- Employment Fifth Preference (E5): Immigrant Investors
In order to be eligible for an application for permanent residence, expats will generally need someone to petition for or sponsor them. Most often this is an employer or family member in the US, who must then fill out the relevant forms to confirm their sponsorship. If the petition is approved, expats can apply for permanent residence.*Visa regulations are subject to change at short notice and expats should contact their respective embassy or consulate for the latest details.