Although expats are not likely to experience severe culture shock in Azerbaijan, there are a few challenges that they may face.

Azerbaijani culture is a true blend of East and West, with influences predominantly from Middle Eastern, Russian and Turkish cultures. Most of the population are Azerbaijani, with minority groups including Russians, Turks, Kurds, Lezgians and Talysh. These cultures have all contributed to Azerbaijan’s rich history and its unique traditions, language and cuisine.

Language barrier in Azerbaijan

The language barrier in Azerbaijan is likely to be one of the biggest obstacles expats will face. Azerbaijani (also known as Azeri) is the official language. It is a Turkic language and, as with the culture, closely related to Turkish. Russian and Turkish are also widely spoken. 

While English is increasingly used in business circles, particularly in the energy sector, the majority of the population cannot speak or understand it. Therefore, in general, everyday dealings with the local population, if unable to speak one of the local languages, communication will likely be challenging. Azerbaijani can be a complex language to learn, but attempting at least a few key phrases will go a long way to interacting positively with the local population.

Food and drink in Azerbaijan

As with Azerbaijani culture, food in Azerbaijan is largely influenced by Turkish, Russian and Asian flavours. Meat and rice are popular and spices are commonly used to create rich and intense flavours. Azerbaijani cuisine is hearty and portions are generous. The country’s favourable climate also means that fresh produce is readily available throughout most of the year.

A popular dish in Azerbaijan is plov, a rice dish flavoured with saffron and enriched with meat or vegetable stuffing. Kebabs and shashlik (skewered meat) are also popular dishes.

Black tea flavoured with spices is a traditional drink offered as a welcome before a meal, and also usually served afterwards. Although the majority of the population is Muslim, alcohol is widely available and readily consumed in Azerbaijan.

Meeting and greeting in Azerbaijan

Men typically greet each other with a handshake. Women will also greet each other with a handshake, or if they’re very familiar with each other, a kiss on the cheek. If greeting a woman, it’s best to wait for her to make initial contact. The usual greeting in Azerbaijan is “salaam”, meaning “hello”.

While Azerbaijanis are generally friendly to newcomers, they are often misinterpreted as unfriendly as they very seldom smile at strangers. Smiling is usually reserved for relatives and close friends.

When arriving at an Azeri’s home, it’s customary to remove one’s shoes. It’s also polite to bring a gift; avoid giving alcohol as a gift.

Religion in Azerbaijan

Although the majority of Azerbaijan’s population is classified as Muslim, very few Azeris would describe themselves as religious. Azerbaijan is a secular state and religion is viewed as a very private matter. The country observes freedom of religion and besides Muslims, there are Christian, Orthodox and Jewish minorities. 

Women in Azerbaijan

While the country ascribes to gender equality, Azerbaijan is still a traditional society with traditional gender roles. Family is at the centre of Azerbaijani society, with men viewed as the main breadwinners and women traditionally looking after the home and children. Nevertheless, women are not prevented from succeeding in any way, with some women achieving success in high-level positions within both the political and corporate arenas.

Tips to overcome culture shock in Azerbaijan

  • Although Azeri is a difficult language to learn, expats should try learning at least a few key phrases in order to communicate with the local population.

  • Don’t take it personally if Azeris do not smile at you. It doesn’t mean they are not welcoming, it’s just not customary to smile at strangers.

  • Never insult the president, Ilham Aliyev, or the ruling Aliyev family as this is an offence. In fact, it’s best to avoid discussions about politics altogether. This includes discussing the sensitive issue of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict and Azerbaijan’s relations with Armenia.

  • It’s best to avoid discussing religion. Although most people are Muslim, religion is viewed as a very private matter.